This information is provided for informational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for the advice provided by your physician or other healthcare professional. You should not use the information on this web site for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease, or prescribing any medication or other treatment.
The Human Body
Humans have five vital organs that are essential for survival.
They are the Brain, Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Lungs.
The brain is the most miraculous and multifaceted of all body parts; the most intriguing and mystifying part of the human body. It performs innumerable functions simultaneously within a split second and is the most studied organ.
- The human brain weighs 3 pounds
- It comprises 60% of fat and is one of the fattest organs in the human body
- Human brain has the capacity to generate approximately 23 watts of power when awake.
- Of the total blood and oxygen that is produced in our body, the brain gets 20% of it.
- When the blood supply to the brain stops, it is almost after 8-10 seconds that the brain starts losing the consciousness.
- The brain is capable of surviving for 5 to 6 minutes only if it doesn’t get oxygen after which it dies.
- The blood vessels that are present in the brain are almost 100,000 miles in length.
- There are 100 billion neurons present in the brain.
- In early pregnancy, the neurons develop at an alarming rate of 250,000 per minute.
- As we grow older, we are unable to remember new things. According to the researchers in the US it is because the brain is unable to filter and remove old memories which prevent it from absorbing new ideas.
- It is a myth that we use only 10% of the brain, in fact every part of the brain has a known function. Also, there is no left/right brain divide-they work together. And No, brain cells do not die whenever you sneeze.
- It is also a myth that getting forgetful is an inevitable part of aging. Earlier the brain was thought to be hardwired, however, Neuroscientists have developed computer programs that can halt slow down and even reverse memory loss by 10 years.
- Everyone dreams, even blind people, for at least 1-2 hours and on an average 4-7 dreams each night. Brain waves are more active while you are dreaming than when you are awake.
What is brain death?
Brain death is when a person’s brain has completely stopped working.
People who are brain dead are unaware and can’t think or feel, they can’t move or breathe
Their brain stops controlling automatic body functions such as heartbeat and blood pressure
People don’t recover, and the body dies within a few days no matter what doctors do
People with brain death are considered legally dead
Machines can breathe for someone who is brain dead, and medicines can keep the heart beating for a short time. However, eventually, all the person’s organs stop working.
If a person wanted to be an organ donor, doctors may be able to use the person’s organs for transplant. But the organ donation has to be done before the organs stop working.
Brain death is different from coma. People in a coma have some brain function and sometimes recover.
No one who meets the criteria for brain death recovers. Thus, once brain death is confirmed, the person is considered dead.
After brain death is confirmed, all life support is stopped. Family members may wish to be with the person at this time.
They need to be told that one or more limbs may move when breathing assistance is ended or that the person may even sit up (sometimes called the Lazarus sign). These movements result from spinal reflex muscle contractions and do not mean the person is not really brain dead.
The heart is a muscular organ about the size of a closed fist that functions as the body’s circulatory pump.
The average weight of a man’s heart is 10 ounces, and the average weight of a women’s heart is 8 ounces.
The average heart rate for women is 78 beats per minute, and the average heart rate for men is 70 beats per minute.
The heart beats 100,000 times a day, pumping 2,000 gallons of blood each day through the body’s circulatory system.
It takes in deoxygenated blood through the veins and delivers it to the lungs for oxygenation before pumping it into the various arteries (which provide oxygen and nutrients to body tissues by transporting the blood throughout the body).
The heart is located under the rib cage, between the lungs and to the left of the sternum.
The inferior tip of the heart, known as the apex, rests just superior to the diaphragm.
The base of the heart is located along the body’s midline with the apex pointing toward the left side.
On its superior end, the base of the heart is attached to the aorta, pulmonary arteries and veins, and the vena cava.
Because the heart points to the left, about 2/3 of the heart’s mass is found on the left side of the body and the other 1/3 is on the right.
The sounds of a normal heartbeat are known as “lubb” and “dupp” and are caused by blood pushing on the valves of the heart.
The “lubb” sound comes first in the heartbeat and is the longer of the two heart sounds. The “lubb” sound is produced by the closing of the AV valves at the beginning of ventricular systole.
The shorter, sharper “dupp” sound is similarly caused by the closing of the semilunar valves at the end of ventricular systole.
During a normal heartbeat, these sounds repeat in a regular pattern of lubb-dupp-pause.
Any additional sounds such as liquid rushing or gurgling indicate a structure problem in the heart.
The most likely causes of these extraneous sounds are defects in the atrial or ventricular septum or leakage in the valves.
Less than 130/80 mm Hg
Normal blood pressure is less than 120/80 mm Hg (systolic pressure is less than 120 AND diastolic pressure is less than 80).
Elevated is systolic pressure from 120-129 OR diastolic pressure less than 80. High blood pressure is systolic pressure of 130 or higher OR diastolic pressure of 80 or higher.
When blood pressure is higher, your heart has to work harder.
Changes in health habits such as losing weight, eating less sodium (salt) and enjoying regular physical activity can help lower blood pressure.
If you have high blood pressure, staying on your medicines is critical to prevent heart attacks, strokes, kidney disease and heart failure.
Get your cholesterol checked and talk to your doctor about your numbers and how they impact your overall risk.
High blood cholesterol occurs if your body makes too much cholesterol or if you eat foods that have too much saturated fat and trans fat.
For patients with coronary heart disease that are at high risk, treatment focuses on reducing cholesterol.
To lower your cholesterol, you may need to change your eating habits and lose weight.
Speak with your doctor to see if you should be taking a cholesterol medicine along with making these lifestyle changes.
Heart Health Problems
Heart disease is very common, disrupting the normal function of this important organ and often causing death.
When we think of keeping up on good health, we may think about heart health, managing a healthy weight, or even maintaining a healthy liver; but seldom do we think about kidney function health.
From kidney stones and gallbladder issues, to urinary tract infections (even guys can get them!), keeping your kidneys clean can help you to avoid major health issues.
The most serious is kidney disease, which among many things can be caused by high blood pressure and diabetes.
From the painful to the more severe, it’s essential to keep your kidneys healthy.
Your kidneys have a big job. They filter half a cup of blood every minute, expertly removing waste to make urine and enable your body to rid itself of toxins.
Without the balance that your kidneys bring to your body and its fluids, other muscles, nerves and tissues in your body are unable to properly function.
Keep your kidneys and their neighbors running smoothly with a natural and powerful supplement.
Drink enough fluid
Drinking about 6–8 glasses of water (of about 200 ml each) each day should be about right to keep you hydrated. If you’ve lost more fluid through sweating or diarrhea for example, you may need to drink more.
Kidney experts recommend that you drink when you’re thirsty, but not excessively.
Check the color of your urine to see if you are hydrated
Clear to light yellow: You’re hydrated. Drink as you get thirsty.
Dark yellow to dark amber: You’re dehydrated. Have a drink of water.
Cloudy (milky): You might have a urinary tract infection, especially if you have other symptoms, like a burning sensation when you pee, needing to pee more often or smelly pee. Kidney stones can also cause cloudy pee.
Pink, red or light brown: This can be caused by some medicines or food (e.g. beetroot, blackberries or rhubarb). If you’re female, it could be vaginal blood. Sometimes, a urinary tract infection causes blood in pee. Or if you have ADPKD, it could signal a cyst infection, bleeding cyst or kidney stone.
Dark brown: This can be caused by some medicines or food (e.g. broad beans, rhubarb or aloe). It might also signal a urinary tract infection or kidney or liver problem.
Green or blue: This can be caused by some medicines or food colours. It can also be a sign of a urinary tract infection or a liver problem.
Dark yellow or orange: You might be dehydrated. Orange pee can also be caused by some medicines, laxatives, B vitamins or carotene (found in carrots and some other fruit and veg) or a liver problem.
Drink alcohol in moderation
Your liver, not your kidneys, is primarily responsible for breaking down alcohol in your body.
Unless you prefer to do so, there is no need to give up alcohol completely if you have ADPKD and are otherwise healthy.
But, alcohol does increase people’s risk of accidents and diseases including cancer, stroke and heart and liver disease. So, follow advice on low-risk drinking.
- Drink no more than 14 units a week regularly (whether you’re a man or a woman)
- Have 2–3 alcohol-free days a week
- Spread your drinking out over a few days, rather than drinking a lot of alcohol in one session
No body organ performs a wider variety of essential jobs than the liver.
- It Produces essential proteins that help blood to clot
- It Removes or neutralizes poisons, drugs and alcohol
- It Manufactures bile that helps the body to absorb fats and cholesterol
- It Helps to maintain normal blood sugar levels
- It Regulates several hormones
Cirrhosis what Is It?
Cirrhosis is the pathologic end-stage of any chronic liver disease and most commonly results from chronic hepatitis B and C, alcohol-related liver disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Cirrhosis is a disease in which normal liver cells are replaced by scar tissue, which interferes with many important functions.
In extreme cases, the damage is so severe that the only solution is a liver transplant.
Cirrhosis has many causes. In the United States and Europe, the most common causes are excessive alcohol use and chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus.
Alcohol has a toxic effect on liver cells. Alcoholic cirrhosis tends to develop after a decade or more of heavy drinking, although it is possible for “social drinkers” to have cirrhosis.
It is not known why some people are more prone to adverse reactions than others, but women are at greater risk of cirrhosis, even when they drink less alcohol than men.
If you have been diagnosed with liver cancer or are worried about it, you likely have a lot of questions. Learning some basics is a good place to start.
The lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the chest (thorax). The trachea (windpipe) conducts inhaled air into the lungs through its tubular branches, called bronchi.
The bronchi then divide into smaller and smaller branches (bronchioles), finally becoming microscopic.
When you breathe in, or inhale, your diaphragm contracts (tightens) and moves downward.
This increases the space in your chest cavity, into which your lungs expand.
The intercostal muscles between your ribs also help enlarge the chest cavity. They contract to pull your rib cage both upward and outward when you inhale.
Here are some ways to keep your lungs healthy.
Avoid Exposure to Indoor Pollutants That Can Damage Your Lungs.
Minimize Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution.
Get Regular Healthcare.
“Do Not Smoke”
Tobacco use has predominantly negative effects on human health and concern about health effects of tobacco has a long history. Research has focused primarily on cigarette tobacco smoking.
Tobacco smoke contains more than 70 chemicals that cause cancer.
Tobacco also contains nicotine, which is a highly addictive psychoactive drug. When tobacco is smoked, nicotine causes physical and psychological dependency. Cigarettes sold in underdeveloped countries tend to have higher tar content, and are less likely to be filtered, potentially increasing vulnerability to tobacco smoking related disease in these regions.
Tobacco use is the single greatest cause of preventable death globally.
As many as half of people who use tobacco die from complications of tobacco use. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that each year tobacco causes about 6 million deaths (about 10% of all deaths) with 600,000 of these occurring in non smokers due to second hand smoke.
In the 20th century tobacco is estimated to have caused 100 million deaths.
Similarly, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describes tobacco use as “the single most important preventable risk to human health in developed countries and an important cause of premature death worldwide.”
Currently, the number of premature deaths in the U.S. from tobacco use per year outnumber the number of workers employed in the tobacco industry by 4 to 1.
According to a 2014 review in the New England Journal of Medicine, tobacco will, if current smoking patterns persist, kill about 1 billion people in the 21st century, half of them before the age of 70.
Tobacco use leads most commonly to diseases affecting the heart, liver and lungs. Smoking is a major risk factor for heart attacks, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (including emphysema and chronic bronchitis), and several cancers (particularly lung cancer, cancers of the larynx and mouth, bladder cancer, and pancreatic cancer).
It also causes peripheral arterial disease and high blood pressure. The effects depend on the number of years that a person smokes and on how much the person smokes. Starting smoking earlier in life and smoking cigarettes higher in tar increases the risk of these diseases. Also, environmental tobacco smoke, or secondhand smoke, has been shown to cause adverse health effects in people of all ages.
Tobacco use is a significant factor in miscarriages among pregnant smokers, and it contributes to a number of other health problems of the fetus such as premature birth, low birth weight, and increases by 1.4 to 3 times the chance of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
Incidence of erectile dysfunction is approximately 85 percent higher in male smokers compared to non-smokers.
Several countries have taken measures to control the consumption of tobacco with usage and sales restrictions as well as warning messages printed on packaging.
Additionally, smoke-free laws that ban smoking in public places such as workplaces, theaters, and bars and restaurants reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and help some people who smoke to quit, without negative economic effects on restaurants or bars.
Tobacco taxes that increase the price are also effective, especially in developing countries.
The idea that tobacco use caused some diseases, including mouth cancers, was initially, in the late 1700s and the 1800s, widely accepted by the medical community.
In the 1880s, automation slashed the cost of cigarettes, and use expanded.
From the 1890s onwards, associations of tobacco use with cancers and vascular disease were regularly reported; a metanalysis citing 167 other works was published in 1930, and concluded that tobacco use caused cancer.
Increasingly solid observational evidence was published throughout the 1930s, and in 1938, Science published a paper showing that tobacco users live substantially shorter lives.
Case-control studies were published in Germany in 1939 and 1943, and one in the Netherlands in 1948, but widespread attention was first drawn by five case-control studies published in 1950 by researchers from the US and UK. These studies were widely criticized as showing correlation, not causality.
Follow up prospective cohort studies in the early 1950s clearly found that that smokers died faster, and were more likely to die of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease.
These results were first widely accepted in the medical community, and publicized among the general public, in the mid-1960s.
You may have seen news reports of lung problems, including two deaths — one in Illinois and another in Oregon— linked to vaping. According to the CDC:
Nearly 200 e-cigarette users have developed severe lung disease in 22 states (and the numbers keep rising — a Washington Post story put the number at 354). Most cases were among teens and young adults.
Experts aren’t sure if vaping actually caused these lung problems, but believe the most likely culprit is a contaminant, not an infectious agent.
Possibilities include chemical irritation, or allergic or immune reactions to various chemicals or other substances in the inhaled vapors.
Typically, symptoms have started gradually, with shortness of breath and/or chest pain before more severe breathing difficulty led to hospital admission.
The lung disease has not been linked to a specific brand or flavor of e-cigarette.
The FDA, CDC, and state health officials are investigating these cases to determine the specific cause(s) and how to prevent and treat them.
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